Pepsi Getting Heat for Use of Aborted Fetal Cells in Flavor Research

PepsiDavid Bohon writes in the New American:

Shareholders of PepsiCo have filed a resolution with the Securities and Exchange Commission in an effort to force the company to stop contracting with a research firm that uses cells from aborted babies in its process of producing artificial flavor enhancers. According to LifeNews.com, Pepsi has “ignored concerns and criticism from dozens of pro-life groups and tens of thousands of pro-life people who voiced their opposition to PepsiCo contracting with biotech company Senomyx even after it was found to be testing their food additives using fetal cells from abortions.”

On its website Senomyx explains that its flavor research programs “focus on the discovery and development of savory, sweet and salt flavor ingredients that are intended to allow for the reduction of MSG, sugar and salt in food and beverage products. Using isolated human taste receptors, we created proprietary taste receptor-based assay systems that provide a biochemical or electronic readout when a flavor ingredient interacts with the receptor.”

But Debi Vinnedge of Children of God for Life, a pro-life group that has focused its attention on Pepsi’s relationship with Senomyx, pointed out that what the company does not reveal is that it is “using HEK293 — human embryonic kidney cells taken from an electively aborted baby to produce those receptors. They could have easily chosen animal, insect, or other morally obtained human cells expressing the G protein for taste receptors.”

When asked about her company’s use of HEK293, Senomyx vice president Gwen Rosenberg assured a reporter for the Miami New Times that “you won’t find anything on our website about HEK293.” Queried about the company’s position on stem-cell research, Rosenberg boasted, “We don’t have a position on anything. We’re dedicated to finding new flavors to reduce sugars and reduce salt. Our focus is to help consumers with diabetes or high blood pressure have a better quality of life.”

Read More: New American

120 Comments on "Pepsi Getting Heat for Use of Aborted Fetal Cells in Flavor Research"

  1. generation x | Nov 18, 2011 at 9:50 pm |

    I love the taste of fetus in the morning

  2. generation x | Nov 18, 2011 at 5:50 pm |

    I love the taste of fetus in the morning

  3. Mamagriff50 | Nov 18, 2011 at 9:57 pm |

    Another reason why I prefer Coke.

  4. Mamagriff50 | Nov 18, 2011 at 5:57 pm |

    Another reason why I prefer Coke.

  5. DeepCough | Nov 18, 2011 at 10:08 pm |

    I always wondered why Pepsi tasted sweeter in comparison to Coke–now I know why.

  6. DeepCough | Nov 18, 2011 at 6:08 pm |

    I always wondered why Pepsi tasted sweeter in comparison to Coke–now I know why.

  7. Simiantongue | Nov 18, 2011 at 10:21 pm |

    It’s people! Pepsi Cola is made out of peeeeeeeople!

  8. Simiantongue | Nov 18, 2011 at 6:21 pm |

    It’s people! Pepsi Cola is made out of peeeeeeeople!

    • Nirvanasteve | Nov 18, 2011 at 6:38 pm |

      My thoughts exactly when I first read the title of this article. It came as somewhat of a relief to learn that they were using these embryonic cells to test the flavors, not be the flavor, but it’s still creepy.

      • Simiantongue | Nov 20, 2011 at 7:31 am |

        Yeah you’re absolutely right, I understood that the minute I read the article. The analogy with Soylent Green was too juicy to pass up though. It’s humor, that’s all.  Heh heh “juicy”.

        Anyway on another note I don’t suppose they have the intact mouth, tongue area of a fetus attached to some machine, they feed it Pepsi and gauge the reaction it has, In a nightmare carnival of human flesh and robotics, something like this.

        http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Zi0_4xHS40&feature=results_main&playnext=1&list=PL378B1DA780827508

        I know there is no human flesh on that thing but lets pretend the mouth is a fetus mouth. What a nightmare scenario, simply delightfully dark to contemplate. Realistically it’s no more than some cells in a dish and they drop some artificial ingredient on it and see if the receptors react. But I’m wondering how they know if it’s a good reaction or a bad. Even nasty tasting shit would elicit a reaction.  It would only tell them whether the taste receptors could taste the ingredient, nothing more. In that case why don’t they just drop some in their own mouth and find out, they’re expecting people to ingest this shit in the end anyway.

    • Tender, delicious peeeeeeople! 

    • MozzManzoor | Nov 19, 2011 at 1:09 am |

      its not made out of people.  they are using cells from the fetuses to harvest TASTE RECEPTORS.  they have designed a mechanism to give an electrical signal when a taste receptor reacts to an ingredient.  They are using the receptors to research ingredients.  NOT PUTTING BABIES IN PEPSI.

      • Anarchy Pony | Nov 19, 2011 at 1:36 am |

        I think you seriously underestimate most of the posters here.

      • smooth_operator | Nov 19, 2011 at 3:52 am |

        Mozz, we’re drinking people for Christ’s sake!

      • So it turns out they’re not putting fetuses into Pepsi. They’re simply harvesting tiny fetus tongues and pouring the Pepsi OVER them. Yes, that’ soooo much better. LOLOL.

        Seems to me, there’s a two-fold problem here.

        1.) Religious wackjobs who think a fetus is a person.
        2.) Corporations who do truly weird shit in order to “test” their products.

      • Simiantongue | Nov 19, 2011 at 2:17 pm |

        Yeah but I couldn’t make a joke about that.

        http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8Sp-VFBbjpE

    • GoodDoktorBad | Nov 21, 2011 at 2:14 pm |

      No wonder people make me sick….they’re made out of Pepsi!!

  9. Nirvanasteve | Nov 18, 2011 at 10:38 pm |

    My thoughts exactly when I first read the title of this article. It came as somewhat of a relief to learn that they were using these embryonic cells to test the flavors, not be the flavor, but it’s still creepy.

  10. Mr Willow | Nov 18, 2011 at 10:57 pm |

    No Coke, Pepsohmygod!!!

  11. Mr Willow | Nov 18, 2011 at 6:57 pm |

    No Coke, Pepsohmygod!!!

  12. Anonymous | Nov 18, 2011 at 11:14 pm |

    “You got the right one baby!” now has a whole new, darker meaning.

  13. Anonymous | Nov 18, 2011 at 11:14 pm |

    “You got the right one baby!” now has a whole new, darker meaning.

  14. “You got the right one baby!” now has a whole new darker meaning.

  15. Rex Vestri | Nov 18, 2011 at 11:29 pm |

    Big fucking deal if they are somehow using cells from aborted fetuses. At lest they’re getting some productive use out of them. They would otherwise just be discarded. 

    I don’t drink soft drinks, but this makes me want to buy some Pepsi just to spite all the anti-choice assholes that want to impose their morals upon everyone else.  Go Pepsi!

  16. Rex Vestri | Nov 18, 2011 at 7:29 pm |

    Big fucking deal if they are somehow using cells from aborted fetuses. At lest they’re getting some productive use out of them. They would otherwise just be discarded. 

    I don’t drink soft drinks, but this makes me want to buy some Pepsi just to spite all the anti-choice assholes that want to impose their morals upon everyone else.  Go Pepsi!

    • After seeing the raging anti-choice religious nitwits protesting in Santa Monica last weekend, I intentionally went and bought a pack of smokes just to express my profound DISrespect for life. Turns out that buying a Pepsi would have been far more effective.

    • MoralDrift | Nov 19, 2011 at 11:35 am |

      I’m certainly not a pro-lifer, but dont you find something a tad bit revolting about fetuses being used to design artificial flavorings….pretty disgusting

      • YES.

      • Jin The Ninja | Nov 19, 2011 at 12:32 pm |

        my thoughts also….

      • Tinytemper | Nov 19, 2011 at 5:15 pm |

        According to this logic, there is no problem drinking pop with roadkill cell parts being added to it.  It would have been going to waste!  Hell yeah, give me a ROADKILL POP, so I can stick to those other idiots… yeah… that’s how I’ll stick it to them… by drinking aborted fetus flavored pop.  WTF kind of special moron thinks that

        • MoralDrift | Nov 19, 2011 at 5:21 pm |

          not sure if you intended to reply to me….but my post was in general agreement with yours

    • Columbiagorgeconstruction | Jan 9, 2012 at 6:37 pm |

      people have a “CHOICE” before they have sex……..be FUCKING RESPONSIBLE  and use BIRTH CONTROL……..anyway you look at it it is FUCKING MURDER

    • i dont see how someone prolife or pro-choice would be for this?  It sickens me actually that only the religious groups seem to be against this?  Do the pro-choice orgs somehow profit from this madness?  im sorry, but it’s sick as hell that places like planned parenthood may be selling fetal tissue for the highest dollar

    • would you mind your dead relatives’ bodies to be used for such an experiment rather than just be discarded to the cemetery?  at least someone would be getting some use out of them??? sick
      how about respect for life and the dead no matter in which way they came to be terminated

    • Nope.Just what Jesus wants.

  17. Tender, delicious peeeeeeople! 

  18. Tender, delicious peeeeeeople! 

  19. it might be because pepsi has some sugar on top of the corn syrup unlike coke

  20. Big fucking deal, this is outrage from a bunch of idiots who don’t understand how binding affinity studies are conducted. These religious nutjobs tried to fool people into thinking Pepsi was making Soylent Green.

  21. Big fucking deal, this is outrage from a bunch of idiots who don’t understand how binding affinity studies are conducted. These religious nutjobs tried to fool people into thinking Pepsi was making Soylent Green.

    • Tinytemper | Nov 19, 2011 at 5:17 pm |

      I always suspected that the Antichrist drank Pepsi.

      And did Satan order unprocessed coca to be taken out of Coke?

      Hmmm…

  22. “Maybe the secret ingredient… IS PEOPLE!”
    “No, there’s already a soda like that, soylent cola.”
    “Oh, How is it?”
    “It varies from person to person.”

  23. Junkfoodmania | Nov 19, 2011 at 4:55 am |

    Just a guess.  The reality is they are testing some new chemicals and need to see the reactions on human cells.  Most likely they are trying to find a way to make Pepsi even more addicting. Phosphoric Acid is not good for you.  Caffeine, Nicotine, junk foods.  All the chemicals in these drinks and foods can not be bought over the counter.  they are regulated and as long as the government gets their cut from corporate it is all good. 

  24. Anarchy Pony | Nov 19, 2011 at 12:55 am |

    “Maybe the secret ingredient… IS PEOPLE!”
    “No, there’s already a soda like that, soylent cola.”
    “Oh, How is it?”
    “It varies from person to person.”

  25. Junkfoodmania | Nov 19, 2011 at 12:55 am |

    Just a guess.  The reality is they are testing some new chemicals and need to see the reactions on human cells.  Most likely they are trying to find a way to make Pepsi even more addicting. Phosphoric Acid is not good for you.  Caffeine, Nicotine, junk foods.  All the chemicals in these drinks and foods can not be bought over the counter.  they are regulated and as long as the government gets their cut from corporate it is all good. 

  26. MozzManzoor | Nov 19, 2011 at 5:09 am |

    its not made out of people.  they are using cells from the fetuses to harvest TASTE RECEPTORS.  they have designed a mechanism to give an electrical signal when a taste receptor reacts to an ingredient.  They are using the receptors to research ingredients.  NOT PUTTING BABIES IN PEPSI.

  27. Mozz Manzoor | Nov 19, 2011 at 5:25 am |

    I find it very disappointing that this site has succumbed to such lazy, sensational, and downright irresponsible tactics, in lieu of real journalism, and even their own namesake. 

  28. Mozz Manzoor | Nov 19, 2011 at 5:25 am |

    I find it very disappointing that this site has succumbed to such lazy, sensational, and downright irresponsible tactics, in lieu of real journalism, and even their own namesake. 

  29. Mozz Manzoor | Nov 19, 2011 at 1:25 am |

    I find it very disappointing that this site has succumbed to such lazy, sensational, and downright irresponsible tactics, in lieu of real journalism, and even their own namesake. 

  30. Anonymous | Nov 19, 2011 at 5:29 am |

    That is how its done, folks.

  31. Mozz Manzoor | Nov 19, 2011 at 5:29 am |

    The HEK 293 cell line has been around since the 70’s. These are cells grown from previous cells. Not even recent aborted fetuses.

  32. Mozz Manzoor | Nov 19, 2011 at 1:29 am |

    The HEK 293 cell line has been around since the 70’s. These are cells grown from previous cells. Not even recent aborted fetuses.

  33. Anonymous | Nov 19, 2011 at 5:30 am |

    Was this site featured on 4chan or Conservapedia or something?

  34. I dunno, bit it seems like a bunch of annoying trolls are coming out of the cyberwork.

  35. Anarchy Pony | Nov 19, 2011 at 5:35 am |

    You realize of course, that that’s from futurama right?

  36. I think you seriously underestimate most of the posters here.

  37. Anonymous | Nov 19, 2011 at 6:21 am |

    You realize of course that I didn’t actually know that.

  38. Anonymous | Nov 19, 2011 at 7:52 am |

    Mozz, we’re drinking people for Christ’s sake!

  39. Anonymous | Nov 19, 2011 at 8:53 am |

    I love this little bit of doublespeak: “When asked about her company’s use of HEK293, Senomyx vice president Gwen Rosenberg assured a reporter for the Miami New Times that “you won’t find anything on our website about HEK293.”

    Was the question “Is there any information about HEK293 on your website?” or something else? the NT article doesn’t say either (and I am reposting this there..)

  40. WickedGoodUsername | Nov 19, 2011 at 4:53 am |

    I love this little bit of doublespeak: “When asked about her company’s use of HEK293, Senomyx vice president Gwen Rosenberg assured a reporter for the Miami New Times that “you won’t find anything on our website about HEK293.”

    Was the question “Is there any information about HEK293 on your website?” or something else? the NT article doesn’t say either (and I am reposting this there..)

  41. After seeing the raging anti-choice religious nitwits protesting in Santa Monica last weekend, I intentionally went and bought a pack of smokes just to express my profound DISrespect for life. Turns out that buying a Pepsi would have been far more effective.

  42. So it turns out they’re not putting fetuses into Pepsi. They’re simply harvesting tiny fetus tongues and pouring the Pepsi OVER them. Yes, that’ soooo much better. LOLOL.

    Seems to me, there’s a two-fold problem here.

    1.) Religious wackjobs who think a fetus is a person.
    2.) Corporations who do truly weird shit in order to “test” their products.

  43. Big deal.  Someone comments how disappointed they’ve become with Disinfo daily.

  44. Anonymous | Nov 19, 2011 at 3:35 pm |

    I’m certainly not a pro-lifer, but dont you find something a tad bit revolting about fetuses being used to design artificial flavorings….pretty disgusting

  45. YES.

  46. Jin Onikoroshi | Nov 19, 2011 at 4:32 pm |

    my thoughts also….

  47. Anonymous | Nov 19, 2011 at 4:48 pm |

    This is the definition of reactionary

  48. JoiquimCouteau | Nov 19, 2011 at 12:48 pm |

    This is the definition of reactionary

  49. Simiantongue | Nov 19, 2011 at 6:17 pm |

    Yeah but I couldn’t make a joke about that.

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8Sp-VFBbjpE

  50. padraig hundt | Nov 19, 2011 at 8:30 pm |

     Mr European decadence married Frau Lebensraum and fathered the child America… who says that insanity isn’t inherited? Got to expect grandchildren like Pepsi et al

  51. padraig hundt | Nov 19, 2011 at 4:30 pm |

     Mr European decadence married Frau Lebensraum and fathered the child America… who says that insanity isn’t inherited? Got to expect grandchildren like Pepsi et al

  52. Tinytemper | Nov 19, 2011 at 9:15 pm |

    According to this logic, there is no problem drinking pop with roadkill cell parts being added to it.  It would have been going to waste!  Hell yeah, give me a ROADKILL POP, so I can stick to those other idiots… yeah… that’s how I’ll stick it to them… by drinking aborted fetus flavored pop.  WTF kind of special moron thinks that

  53. Tinytemper | Nov 19, 2011 at 9:17 pm |

    I always suspected that the Antichrist drank Pepsi.

    And did Satan order unprocessed coca to be taken out of Coke?

    Hmmm…

  54. Anonymous | Nov 19, 2011 at 9:21 pm |

    not sure if you intended to reply to me….but my post was in general agreement with yours

  55. Simiantongue | Nov 20, 2011 at 11:31 am |

    Yeah you’re absolutely right, I understood that the minute I read the article. The analogy with Soylent Green was too juicy to pass up though. It’s humor, that’s all.  Heh heh “juicy”.

    Anyway on another note I don’t suppose they have the intact mouth, tongue area of a fetus attached to some machine, they feed it Pepsi and gauge the reaction it has, In a nightmare carnival of human flesh and robotics, something like this.

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Zi0_4xHS40&feature=results_main&playnext=1&list=PL378B1DA780827508

    I know there is no human flesh on that thing but lets pretend the mouth is a fetus mouth. What a nightmare scenario, simply delightfully dark to contemplate. Realistically it’s no more than some cells in a dish and they drop some artificial ingredient on it and see if the receptors react. But I’m wondering how they know if it’s a good reaction or a bad. Even nasty tasting shit would elicit a reaction.  It would only tell them whether the taste receptors could taste the ingredient, nothing more. In that case why don’t they just drop some in their own mouth and find out, they’re expecting people to ingest this shit in the end anyway.

  56. There’s nothing in this article but hearsay.  Where is the proof they are using stem cells?  Is there an available scientific analysis, leaked corporate paperwork proving it or some other proof?  All I see here is a fringe anti-abortion group making unsubstantiated claims.  

  57. There’s nothing in this article but hearsay.  Where is the proof they are using stem cells?  Is there an available scientific analysis, leaked corporate paperwork proving it or some other proof?  All I see here is a fringe anti-abortion group making unsubstantiated claims.  

  58. Shaneequa Sarkozy | Nov 20, 2011 at 7:51 pm |

    Fetuses? In my soda?? Fuck Coke, I’m switching to Pepsi! 😀

  59. Shaneequa Sarkozy | Nov 20, 2011 at 3:51 pm |

    Fetuses? In my soda?? Fuck Coke, I’m switching to Pepsi! 😀

  60.  Wow people — are you ignorant/illiterate enough to believe that there are stem cells in your soda?

    This is about flavor research, and it’s not being conducted by Pepsico, but by a 3rd party research organization to which Pepsico is affiliated with.

    These cells are being used to essentially be robotic tongues. If you’re “pro-life” and anti- stem cell research then by all means you should be appalled and annoyed at this. That said, if you’re not against stem cell research, then there’s absolutely nothing to care about here!

  61.  Wow people — are you ignorant/illiterate enough to believe that there are stem cells in your soda?

    This is about flavor research, and it’s not being conducted by Pepsico, but by a 3rd party research organization to which Pepsico is affiliated with.

    These cells are being used to essentially be robotic tongues. If you’re “pro-life” and anti- stem cell research then by all means you should be appalled and annoyed at this. That said, if you’re not against stem cell research, then there’s absolutely nothing to care about here!

  62. Anonymous | Nov 21, 2011 at 6:17 am |

    Basically they are searching for a more addictive range of drugs that produce no high but require continuous consumption to prevent a ‘low’ ie psychopath corporation and corrupt government legal.
    One drink and your addicted for life and require at least three doses a day, FDA for profit approved.

  63. Basically they are searching for a more addictive range of drugs that produce no high but require continuous consumption to prevent a ‘low’ ie psychopath corporation and corrupt government legal.
    One drink and your addicted for life and require at least three doses a day, FDA for profit approved.

  64. Anonymous | Nov 21, 2011 at 6:14 pm |

    No wonder people make me sick….they’re made out of Pepsi!!

  65. I’m a biochemistry grad student; I use HEK 293 cells on a regular basis.  I’ve been working with them to do research for vaccines for HIV and malaria, rather than pepsi flavor, but the cell line’s a well-established standard biochemical tool; they’ve been in use since the 70s.  Making proteins, like the cell-surface flavor receptors they’re talking about, is difficult – and the human receptors are far from guaranteed to work in insect, yeast, or bacterial cells anything like they would in human-derived cells.  Testing on HEK cells is one of the best ways to get a cellular-level idea of whether something is toxic without testing it on actual animals or people.

  66. I’m a biochemistry grad student; I use HEK 293 cells on a regular basis.  I’ve been working with them to do research for vaccines for HIV and malaria, rather than pepsi flavor, but the cell line’s a well-established standard biochemical tool; they’ve been in use since the 70s.  Making proteins, like the cell-surface flavor receptors they’re talking about, is difficult – and the human receptors are far from guaranteed to work in insect, yeast, or bacterial cells anything like they would in human-derived cells.  Testing on HEK cells is one of the best ways to get a cellular-level idea of whether something is toxic without testing it on actual animals or people.

  67. Funny people thinking it’s in your pop. Maybe those who do should read the full article. If we want to discuss the moral issue, lets also talk about the moral issue of intentionally misleading the public. http://www.thenewamerican.com/culture/faith-and-morals/9596-pepsi-getting-heat-for-use-of-aborted-fetal-cells-in-flavor-research 

    Come on people, these 5 words should have clued you in. “Using isolated human taste receptors”

  68. Funny people thinking it’s in your pop. Maybe those who do should read the full article. If we want to discuss the moral issue, lets also talk about the moral issue of intentionally misleading the public. http://www.thenewamerican.com/culture/faith-and-morals/9596-pepsi-getting-heat-for-use-of-aborted-fetal-cells-in-flavor-research 

    Come on people, these 5 words should have clued you in. “Using isolated human taste receptors”

    • And before we go there, as I am not subscribing to this comment feed, yes the link I posted is above and was provided by this site, but I am sure they are fully aware that there are many people out there that will only read the article here and not check the link to the full article. How do you think I found this article in the first place? Someone posted it within a group, and was under the same impression that most others were here that may have only read the partial article.

      As for me, I don’t even drink pop.

  69. And before we go there, as I am not subscribing to this comment feed, yes the link I posted is above and was provided by this site, but I am sure they are fully aware that there are many people out there that will only read the article here and not check the link to the full article. How do you think I found this article in the first place? Someone posted it within a group, and was under the same impression that most others were here that may have only read the partial article.

    As for me, I don’t even drink pop.

  70. Jjjanzen1 | Nov 23, 2011 at 3:38 pm |

    Good Information.We like Pepsi BUT until we REASORED that there NO human fetus parts involved in the flavor contents of Pepsi we WILL NOT be buying any of their products.Gwen Rosenburg, do you get it???

  71. Jjjanzen1 | Nov 23, 2011 at 11:38 am |

    Good Information.We like Pepsi BUT until we REASORED that there NO human fetus parts involved in the flavor contents of Pepsi we WILL NOT be buying any of their products.Gwen Rosenburg, do you get it???

  72. WARRIORPRIEST | Dec 12, 2011 at 9:45 am |

    Gwen Rosenberg, another antichrist jew doing something totally ungodly and praising it,

  73. WARRIORPRIEST | Dec 12, 2011 at 5:45 am |

    Gwen Rosenberg, another antichrist jew doing something totally ungodly and praising it,

  74. Way to make her look legitimate by comparison.

  75. Way to make her look legitimate by comparison.

  76. Way to make her look legitimate by comparison.

  77. Way to make her look legitimate by comparison.

  78. Columbiagorgeconstruction | Jan 9, 2012 at 10:37 pm |

    people have a “CHOICE” before they have sex……..be FUCKING RESPONSIBLE  and use BIRTH CONTROL……..anyway you look at it it is FUCKING MURDER

  79. It’s Soilent Green folks!

  80. It’s Soilent Green folks!

  81. i dont see how someone prolife or pro-choice would be for this?  It sickens me actually that only the religious groups seem to be against this?  Do the pro-choice orgs somehow profit from this madness?  im sorry, but it’s sick as hell that places like planned parenthood may be selling fetal tissue for the highest dollar

  82. would you mind your dead relatives’ bodies to be used for such an experiment rather than just be discarded to the cemetery?  at least someone would be getting some use out of them??? sick
    how about respect for life and the dead no matter in which way they came to be terminated

  83. Nope.Just what Jesus wants.

  84. Waste-not, Drink-not

  85. if you dont drink pop why did you get involved with this?

  86. Even though it is technically not poured in its used in the process. Cancer research is one thing a pop flavour is a totally differant thing. And “Using isolated HUMAN taste receptors” its still human.  Btw “taste receptors” I wonder what those are made up of? Oh I dont know human CELLS.

  87. really? you think this is anti abortion people saying this? Did you even read it? they were in support of murdering voiceless, innocent children to get a new flavour. Would you kill a child outside of its mother? whats the differance?

  88. you do realize a fetus is a body part? eating/drinking a fetus is canabalistic in case you didnt know

  89. riddle me this what is a human organ or body part made up of? oh you guesed it CELLS  come on MozzManzoor i learned that 2 years ago in grade 6

Comments are closed.