Elon Musk’s Hyperloop

The remarkable thing, to me anyway, is that Mr. Musk has really thought the Hyperloop concept through and come up with a plan that while seemingly fanciful, could actually work. The only snag is, now that he’s announced it we’ll probably see it copied and linking Shanghai and Beijing rather than Los Angeles and San Francisco. Elon outlines his ideas at his SpaceX site:

When the California “high speed” rail was approved, I was quite disappointed, as I know many others were too. How could it be that the home of Silicon Valley and JPL – doing incredible things like indexing all the world’s knowledge and putting rovers on Mars – would build a bullet train that is both one of the most expensive per mile and one of the slowest in the world? Note, I am hedging my statement slightly by saying “one of”. The head of the California high speed rail project called me to complain that it wasn’t the very slowest bullet train nor the very most expensive per mile.


The underlying motive for a statewide mass transit system is a good one. It would be great to have an alternative to flying or driving, but obviously only if it is actually better than flying or driving. The train in question would be both slower, more expensive to operate (if unsubsidized) and less safe by two orders of magnitude than flying, so why would anyone use it?

If we are to make a massive investment in a new transportation system, then the return should by rights be equally massive. Compared to the alternatives, it should ideally be:

• Safer

• Faster

• Lower cost

• More convenient

• Immune to weather

• Sustainably self-powering

• Resistant to Earthquakes

• Not disruptive to those along the route

Is there truly a new mode of transport – a fifth mode after planes, trains, cars and boats – that meets those criteria and is practical to implement? Many ideas for a system with most of those properties have been proposed and should be acknowledged, reaching as far back as Robert Goddard’s to proposals in recent decades by the Rand Corporation and ET3.

Unfortunately, none of these have panned out. As things stand today, there is not even a short distance demonstration system operating in test pilot mode anywhere in the world, let alone something that is robust enough for public transit. They all possess, it would seem, one or more fatal flaws that prevent them from coming to fruition.

Constraining the Problem

The Hyperloop (or something similar) is, in my opinion, the right solution for the specific case of high traffic city pairs that are less than about 1500 km or 900 miles apart. Around that inflection point, I suspect that supersonic air travel ends up being faster and cheaper. With a high enough altitude and the right geometry, the sonic boom noise on the ground would be no louder than current airliners, so that isn’t a showstopper. Also, a quiet supersonic plane immediately solves every long distance city pair without the need for a vast new worldwide infrastructure.

However, for a sub several hundred mile journey, having a supersonic plane is rather pointless, as you would spend almost all your time slowly ascending and descending and very little time at cruise speed. In order to go fast, you need to be at high altitude where the air density drops exponentially, as air at sea level becomes as thick as molasses (not literally, but you get the picture) as you approach sonic velocity.

Continue Reading (PDF of full proposal)


Majestic is gadfly emeritus.

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6 Comments on "Elon Musk’s Hyperloop"

  1. Anarchy Pony | Aug 13, 2013 at 10:26 am |

    Not a new idea. Jet trains, near vacuum tube super fast trains, levitating trains, all have been proposed before. This isn’t anything but a PR blitz by Musk to generate buzz.

    • The Well Dressed Man | Aug 13, 2013 at 1:44 pm |

      Electric cars are nothing new either. What is new is this team sets extremely high standards for design, and then follows up by implementing them. I was skeptical of the hyperloop until I looked over this technical paper. This is much more than PR.

    • Earthstar | Aug 13, 2013 at 4:55 pm |

      Anarchy Pony, you’re always so grumpy! Do you need a hug?

  2. The Well Dressed Man | Aug 13, 2013 at 1:47 pm |

    About time California starts investing in new infrastructure. Bring on the new jobs for mechanical engineers, Space X!

  3. I’ve skimmed the report. I’d like to see spreadsheets breaking down costs a lot further and documenting assumptions made. Looks cool, but too good to be true. Particularly wondering what cost/mile estimates based on.

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