via h+ Magazine:
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The Transhumanist Wager, brainchild of noted transhumanist Zoltan Istvan, can be understood as follows. If one loves and values their life, then they will want (the option) to live as long as possible. How do they achieve this?
Alternative #1 – do nothing and hope there is an afterlife. But since you don’t know there is an afterlife, doing nothing doesn’t help your odds.
Alternative #2 – use science and technology to gain immortality. By doing something you are increasing your odds of being immortal.
The choice is between bettering your odds or not, and good gamblers say the former is the better choice. At least that’s what the arguments supporters say.
There are two basic obstacles that prevent individuals from taking the wager seriously. First, most people don’t think immortality is technologically possible or, if they do, believe such technologies won’t be around for centuries or millenia.