Kadmus via Gods & Radicals:
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We see a similar structure to the conflict between official state religious power and local magical practice in the cunning craft and witchcraft of Europe and, though in a very different context and developed through very different pressures, in the still exceptionally vital Afro-Caribbean magico-religious traditions. Perhaps the most striking example of this is the distinct character of the Petwa Loa of Haitian Vodou. These are a class of spirits with a particularly violent and forceful nature that derive from the time of the Haitian revolution. Far from sinister, they are part of the force that won freedom for the enslaved in the only slave revolt to result in the founding of a free state. The magic of the Petwa is revolutionary magic par excellence and that of one of history’s most terribly oppressed peoples.
No consideration of the identification of magic with the oppressed would be complete without keeping in mind that it has often been the province of women in contexts when they are denied official social power and freedom.